All of the suffering in the three lower realms and the two higher realms does not arise without causes and conditions. The cause is non-virtuous actions.
Although there are various enumerations of non-virtuous acts, the principal ones to be abandoned are summarized as ten.
The three non-virtuous actions of the body are depriving others of life, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct.
The four non-virtuous actions of speech are to tell lies, to slander, to speak harsh words, and engage in idle talk[i].
The three non-virtuous actions of mind are covetousness, malice, and wrong view[ii].
I should strive to abandon all thoughts and actions related to them,
and definitely give up these ten.
[i] Idle talk includes any speech motivated by afflicted emotions, such as insinuation and flattery; needlessly conversing about mundane topics (politics, war, sex, and others’ business); frivolous singing and joking; and expressing distorted views.
[ii] Wrong view specifically refers to denying (1) the relation between cause and effect, (2) past and future lives, and (3) the Three Jewels.
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